Category Archives: Flat Stanley Pictures

Flat Stanley at the Calligraphy Greenway

Apr.13th. Sunday ☀

Calligraphy Greenway1

A good weekend at the Calligraphy Greenway

A good weekend at the Calligraphy Greenway

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Today, Flat Justin.Stanley and I went to Calligraphy Greenway. We went there by bus, waiting for nearly thirty minutes to get on the bus.
First, we went to eat lunch at a restaurant. We had fried rice, chicken rolls and soup. They were all our favorites. The food was so delicious! Then, we went to Calligraphy Greenway, there were some vendors, stands and some street performances. I liked the “TOP SHOW”best, there was an old man that played tops. His show was very interesting. He played some tricks. He made the top balanced turning on his hand and a paddle. That really made we feel amazing. Flat Justin.Stanley had taken photos with those tops. We went home at 2:00 PM. Stanley and I had a great Sunday afternoon!

Journalists Lisa Ling and Laura Ling

Journalists Lisa Ling and Laura Ling said hello to Flat Stanley who traveled all the way from Mrs. Krull’s classroom at Great Lakes Elementary in Superior, Wisconsin. Second-grader Payton Zepczyk has been following Flat Stanley’s travels in California. Shout-out to Payton’s mom, Shelby Kurtz, and grandmother,Debbie Backlund-Kurtz. — in Indian Wells, California.

Journalists Lisa Ling and Laura Ling said hello to Flat Stanley who traveled all the way from Mrs. Krull's classroom at Great Lakes Elementary in Superior, Wisconsin.

Journalists Lisa Ling and Laura Ling said hello to Flat Stanley who traveled all the way from Mrs. Krull’s classroom at Great Lakes Elementary in Superior, Wisconsin.

Flat Stanley Moves to Cornwall (England)

Cornwall has its own language! Cornish!

Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Brythonic Celtic language and a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom. Along with Welsh and Breton, it is directly descended from the ancient British language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. The language continued to function as a common community language in parts of Cornwall until the late 18th century. Some children used the language to converse in, and families used it as a language of the home through the 19th century and possibly into the 20th. Some elderly speakers were known to be still living into the 20th century including one still alive in 1914. A process to revive the language was started in the early 20th century, continuing to this day.

Flat is going to enrol in some classes to learn the language (just like he learned a bit of Arabic while he was in Saudi Arabia).
This is what Flat has learned about Redruth, so far: Redruth as we see it today is almost wholly a product of the last 250 years. It owed its growth to its good fortune in lying at the centre of what was in the 1700s one of the richest parts of land in the world. It was the deep mining of copper after the 1730s, which catapulted Redruth out of its status of quiet market town – in reality a village. Formerly overshadowed by its neighbours of Truro, Helston and Falmouth, it became one of the major urban centres in Cornwall.
The history of the town has, therefore, three parts. First, there was a long period during which it was a small market town of less than a thousand souls; then from around 1700 to the 1850s the town grew rapidly to house a population of over 8,000 as mining prospered; and finally, from the 1860s, the chronic problems of local industry heralded a period in which the town searched for a new role. Within this framework perhaps the best way to get a feel for the past of Redruth and its people is to walk around its streets.
Redruth is twinned with Plumergat et Meriadec, Brittany, France and Mineral Point, Wisconsin, USA. A lot of Cornish miners emigrated to Wisconsin as the tin mining ran out in Cornwall. 
Finally, the UK history of last name: Stanley
This interesting surname is one of the oldest and noblest of all English surnames, with the Stanley family who hold the earldom of Derby tracing their descent from a companion of Wilham the Conqueror, Adam de Aldithley. A branch of the family taking the name Stanley when Adam’s grandson married the heiress to the manor of Stanley in Staffordshire. The name itself is of Anglo-Saxon locational origin from any of the various places so called in Derbyshire, Durham and Gloucester, and is composed of the Olde English pre 7th Century “stan”, a stone, plus “leah”, a wood or clearing. The founder of the family’s fortune was Sir John Stanley (1350 – 1414), who married an heiress of West Derby, Lancashire, and became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and was granted sovereignty over the Isle of Man by Henry 1V. One Thomas Baron Stanley placed the Crown of England on the head of Henry Tudor (Henry V11) at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, and was created Earl of Derby. Other famous namebearers include Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby (1508 – 1572), who signed a petition to Pope Clement V11 for Henry V111’s divorce, 1530; and Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815 – 1881) who was Dean of Westminster from 1864 – 1881. The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Stanleya, which was dated 1130, in the “Pipe Rolls of Staffordshire”, during the reign of King Henry 1, known as “The Administrator”, 1100 – 1135. Surnames became necessary when governments introduced personal taxation. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to “develop ” often leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. Read more:

1st Annual Cornish Pasty Festival

The UKs first Cornish Pasty Festival.  Three-day event celebrating the history and heritage of the geographically-protected food and its links to Cornish Mining and the World Heritage Site was held in Redruth from 21-23 September 2012.  Flat met the Town Crier and a local pasty who was walking up and down Fore Street.

He only had one pasty, a regular steak pasty, but there were many more on offer and many flavours, including:

Traditional Cornish Pasties

  • Cornish Mixed Pasty

Speciality Pasties

  • Full English Breakfast Pasty
  • Beef Madras Pasty
  • Beef & Stilton Pasty
  • Cheese & Bacon Pasty
  • Chicken Pasty
  • Spicy Chicken Pasty
  • Chicken & Bacon Pasty
  • Ham, Leek & Cheese Pasty
  • Lamb & Mint Pasty
  • Pork & Apple Pasty
  • Steak & Ale Pasty
  • Steak & Onion Pasty

Flat didn’t have a chance to try making his own pasty, the pasty making room was very busy with lots of little fingers though.  But he found this website and will make one at home:


This is what Flat learned at the Cornish Pasty Festival:  “A wealth of historical evidence confirms the importance of the Cornish pasty as part of the county’s culinary heritage, with some of the first references appearing during the 13th Century, during the reign of Henry III. The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that pasty was identified in around 1300. The pasty became commonplace in the 16th and 17th centuries and really attained its true Cornish identity during the last 200 years. By the 18th century it was firmly established as a Cornish food eaten by poorer working families who could only afford cheap ingredients such as potatoes, swede and onion. Meat was added later.


Evidence of the Cornish pasty as a traditional Cornish food is found in Worgan’s agricultural survey of Cornwall of 1808. In the 1860s records show that children employed in mines also took pasties with them as part of their crib or croust (local dialect for snack or lunch).


By the end of the 18th century it was the staple diet of working men across Cornwall. Miners and farm workers took this portable and easy to eat convenience food with them to work because it was so well suited to the purpose. Its size and shape made it easy to carry, its pastry case insulated the contents and was durable enough to survive, while its wholesome ingredients provided enough sustenance to see the workers through their long and arduous working days.

By the early 20th century the Cornish Pasty was produced on a large scale throughout the county as a basic food for farm workers and miners.”


He also learned that the Cornish Pasty is a protected food winning official recognition protection under the EU protected food names scheme!  A genuine Cornish pasty will need to contain chunks of beef, potato, onion and swede (or turnip, as it’s called in Cornwall), all encased in the famous D-shaped crust.  The award of Protected Geographic Indication status means the pasties can only be made in Cornwall, and only pasties meeting the registered specification will be able to carry the name ‘Cornish Pasty’ on their label.


Flat had only one thing to say after he finished eating his first Cornish pasty:  “Proper job!”
singing the pasty song all the way home:

St Piran’s Day March 2013

On 1 March 2013, St Piran arrived (again) in Perranporth.  Flat went to welcome him, along with the children form the local schools.  He had a great time dancing the Piran Furry Dance.  He was a bit disappointed that the photos weren’t very good, but hopes you get an idea of the dancing any way.

Flat learned that Piran is the most famous of all the saints said to have come to Cornwall from Ireland.  The heathen Irish tied him to a mill-stone, rolled it over the edge of a cliff into a stormy sea, which immediately became calm, and the saint floated safely over the water to land upon the sandy beach of Perranzabuloe in Cornwall.  He was joined at Perranzabuloe by many of his Christian converts and together they founded the Abbey of Lanpiran, with Piran as abbot.  Saint Piran ‘rediscovered’ tin-smelting (tin had been smelted in Cornwall since before the Romans’ arrival, but the methods had since been lost) when his black hearthstone, which was evidently a slab of tin-bearing ore, had the tin smelt out of it and rise to the top in the form of a white cross (thus the image on the flag).

St Piran’s Day is popular in Cornwall and the term ‘Perrantide’ has been coined to describe the week prior to this day. Many Cornish-themed events occur in the Duchy and also in areas in which there is a large community descended from Cornish emigrants. The village of Perranporth (‘Porthpyran’ in Cornish) hosts the annual inter-Celtic festival of ‘Lowender Peran’, which is also named in honour of him.  Flat was unable to attend the largest St Piran’s Day event – the march across the dunes to St Piran’s cross which thousands of people attending, generally dressed in black, white and gold, and carrying the Cornish Flag – maybe next year so he can take part in the play about the Life of St Piran, in Cornish. Daffodils are also carried and placed at the cross. Daffodils also feature in celebrations in Truro, most likely due to their ‘gold’ colour. Black, white and gold are colours associated with Cornwall due to St Piran’s Flag (black and white), and the Duchy Shield (gold coins on black).

How did Flat end his St Piran’s Day celebrations?  With a Cornish Pasty of course!


Lucy White’s Flat Stanley goes to Florida on Holiday…

Here are some photographs of Lucy White’s Flat Stanley visiting Sarasota, Florida from Whiteley, Hampshire in England…  Thanks to Dale for letting us publish some photo’s on this blog…

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Flat Stanley arrives at Auntie Jenni and Uncle Geoff’s in Florida…            …and then heads off for a Bike Ride with Auntie Jenni…

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Dylan plays with Flat Stanley and welcomes him to the house…                          Flat Stanley has a siesta with Tia…

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… and a quick chat with Harvey (in his favorite fruit bowl!)…                          Catching up on some reading while chilling in the pool…

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Watching the sunset while having a nice glass of lemonade 🙂                        Too much chocolate mousse…  stuffed! 😉

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Tips on hunting gecko’s from Harvey….                                                                                      …and also from Dylan…

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Watching “Rango” (one of his favorite movies!) 🙂                                                         Off to Nokomis Beach to climb some trees…

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…and paddle in the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico 🙂                   …and here are some prehistoric sharks teeth he found on Nokomis Beach…

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… and then off for a swim in the Gulf of Mexico in his all-in-one plastic swim suit 🙂         …and finally, some sea kayaking…


After an exhausting week, his last day was spent chilling by the pool 🙂


Flat Stanley In Western Australia

Hi my name is Chris, my Daughter works as a Teaching Assistant at The Grove Primary School in Consett, Co. Durham, England. I was persuaded to take Flat Stanley with us when we visited Western Australia in May 2011.

As well as about 250 photo’s I sent emails to the kids each week these really came from Flat Stanley, about his travels and adventures, while in Australia we spent 10 weeks traveling around in a caravan, to in order:- Mandurah, Kalbarri, Carnarvon, Exmouth, Point Samson, Port Headland, Tom Price, Coral Bay, Denham (Shark Bay) and back to Mandurah.

Kind regards from one of Flat Stanley’s Friends


Flat Stanley Project

By looking for ideas for our Summer Reading Program, the Flat Stanley Project fit in perfectly with our theme of “One World Many Stories.” On June 11, 2011, we had a kickoff Ice Cream Social for our Summer Reading Program. We had a section at the kickoff to hand out Flat Stanley packets and explain the project to everyone interested. During this kickoff, we passed out 225 packets.
Over the summer, we heard from many people about how interested they were in this project, or how they had done this at school in the past. Slowly, Flat Stanleys made their way back to the library. As they returned, we put the pictures, journal, and Flat Stanley up on the bulletin board. We also used a string to show each Flat Stanley’s journey on a map.
The day of the Flat Stanley party came on August 17, 2011 and we had 31 people attend, a 14% return from the kickoff party in June. I think we would have had more Flat Stanleys return if we had the project run longer than a few months. We had each participant do a show and tell to talk about where each Flat Stanley travelled. Flat Stanley visited Thailand, Afghanistan, Hershey PA, Columbus OH, and Orlando FL to name a few. We had awards, a trophy, to hand out for the Farthest Travelled Flat Stanley and one voted as the Best Destination by the participants. Also, we had a former local actor come and do a dramatization of the Flat Stanley picture book.
Overall, the project was so much fun and a fresh spin on pen pals. We learned about a number of different places around the world and saw some amazing pictures too. It is pretty cool to see the creativity of the people who received a Flat Stanley too!

Flat Al-Stanley Hikes the Great Flat Lode

Where in the UK is Cornwall?

Cornish Flag

The Great Flat Lode


Great Flat Lode Trail

(for more photos from this trip: )

On a recent holiday to Cornwall in England we decided to geocache around the Great Flat Lode.  I had grown up in the area, but had never explored the mines as a child – this was my chance.

There is a geocache trail around the Great Flat Lode and was a great chance to not only walk along the trail and find geocaches but to learn more about mining in Cornwall.  I had learned about mining in school but Flat Stanley gave me another chance to learn what I had forgotten!

And yes, we did find all of the geocaches – thanks to some very appreciated help from the cache owner.  The cache trail was a multi/puzzle cache with part of the information for the next cache in the previouse one – so we had to make sure we found them in the right order.  This was a problem at one cache site because the box, and therefore the clue, was missing!  We emailed the owner and he quickly re-placed it so that we could complete the trail in our 2 weeks’ holiday.

Please come with us on our trail of discovery…

The Great Flat Lode is an enormous ore bearing body tilted at an angle of about 10 degrees to the horizontal situated to the south of Carn Brea. Normally lodes are found perpendicular to the ground surface or at best at angles of about 60 degrees. The Great Flat lode got its name as in relative terms it lay a lot flatter in the ground. This, meant that mines could be placed at the optimum locations to extract the tin or copper ore from the ground without digging to excessive depths. The Great Flat Lode Trail encompasses all the major mines of the Camborne-Redruth area running in a 7.5 mile multi-use circular trail around the granite hill of Carn Brea.

The mines of the Great Flat Lode helped to provide employment to Men (miners), women and children (Ore dressers) at a time when the rest of the Cornish Mining industry was in decline. As the copper ores became exhausted in about 1870, the mine owners explored deeper finding fine high quality tin concentrations underlying the copper. This gave the mines of the Great Flat Lode a new lease of life. After some of the companies amalgamated in the late 1890’s the mines continued producing until about 1918.

South Tincroft Mine – Carn Brea and Tincroft Mines now form part of the enlarged sett of South Crofty. They were separate concerns at one stage lying just to the north and northwest of the granite hill of Carn Brea overlooking the Camborne-Redruth area. Carn Brea sett was one of the largest setts in this part of Cornwall. The mine was situated on the lower slopes of the hill and was bounded to the east by Carn Brea Village and the sett of Wheal Union and Wheal Uny, Redruth. To the north lay the main Great Western Railway line from Penzance to Paddington and the setts of East Pool, Wheal Agar and Tehidy. To the west lay the hamlets of Tregajorran and Penhellick and the Tincroft, Illogan Mines and Crofty setts. Over the hill to the south the area was leased to the North Frances and South Carn Brea setts.

Tincroft was first mentioned in historical texts in the 1680s as ‘Penhellick Vean & Tyn Croft’. In1832 Wheal Druid was amalgamated with Wheal Fanny, Tregajorran Mine and Barncoose Mine to become Carn Brea Mines. During the 1840-50’s production from the highly mineralised area running southeast from Camborne to Bissoe was at its peak. Cornwall produced almost 80% of the UK’s copper and about a quarter of world production! 1859‘man engine’ was installed on Dunkin’s shaft, connected to a 26-inch rotative beam engine at South Tincroft Mine – Grid reference SW669406. 1850-1870 As copper production fell tin production increased with advances in mining technology allowing the tin to be worked at greater depths. 1891 The compressor house was constructed at South Tincroft housing a horizontal steam-driven compressor made by Harvey’s of Hayle which powered the rock drills underground. 1896 Tincroft and Carn Brea Mines amalgamated – records show that in this year the mine employed 466 workers undergound and 607 on the surface – quite a shock when you see the area today. 1921 South Tincroft mine closed. In their lifetime Carn Brea and Tincroft mines produced 470,000 tons of copper and 53,000 tons of tin.

Great Flat Lode

South Tincroft Mine

South Tincroft Mine

South Tincroft Mine

Great Flat Lode








South Tincroft Mine

South Tincroft Mine


South Wheal Frances – Grid reference SW678393 – lies roughly in the middle of the Great Flat Lode with its area bounded to the northeast by the sett of Wheal Basset and to the southwest by Grenville United sett. Lady Frances Bassett, the mineral Lord, offered a lease on the land in 1834 and although there had been workings in this area since the early 1720’s, this new lease offered a chance to make a viable business.  South Wheal Frances today is a group of buildings centered on Marriott’s shaft. Remaining buildings include the Boiler House, Compressor House, the Miner’s Dry, Smithy and winder house as well as the bases of the ore bins.

South Wheal Frances

South Wheal Frances

South Wheal Frances

South Wheal Frances

Stalactites at South Wheal Frances

South Wheal Frances









Grenville United Mines  – Grid Ref. SW663386 – The mines of Wheal Grenville lie to the southeast of Camborne on the western extremity of the Great Flat Lode. On 29th December 1845 a lease was granted by the ‘mineral lord’ Baroness Grenville to work the area southwest of the existing Condurrow Sett. The new ‘Wheal Grenville Company’, run initially by Captain Lyle and Captain Thomas, took over the workings of previous ventures such as Polgine (1790-1835) and Newton Moor mines and worked for about six years before being purchased by ‘John Taylor and Sons’ – a company run by the local tramway entrepreneur. Further east, the mines of the South Wheal Frances sett were producing a great deal of copper ore and this helped to promote the general area to potential investors. Wheal Grenville did not however live up to its initial expectations and the new company was sold once more in 1855. The mine was bought for £2040 and the new company set about dewatering the mine and deepening the shafts. The eastern section of the land was hived off in 1859 to become East Wheal Grenville sett. The first real production taking place in 1860 with just under 250 tons of copper ore raised with about 80 tons of tinstone. A new shaft was sunk at North Shaft in 1864but production was sluggish. Employment at Wheal Grenville at this time was about 240 people, with about a third of these being females and boys working on the surface. Other shafts were deepened especially at New Shaft and at Boundary Shaft where the sett bordered East Grenville.

Wheal Grenville

Wheal Grenville

Wheal Grenville

King Edward Mine








King Edward Mine is at the eastern part of the South Condurrow Mine which was abandoned about 1890. It was re-opened in 1897, and developed as a fully operational/training mine.  King Edward (as it was re-named in 1901) was completely re-equipped, both on surface and underground, with modern machinery reflecting what was then considered the best Cornish practice.  It was intended that the tin produced would cover most of the teaching costs.

The mine regularly produced tin up until World War 1 when operations were suspended.  By 1920 it was back in production.  This was short-lived for in 1921 the adjacent deeper Grenville Mine stopped working.  As the two mines were interconnected, the consequent flooding of Grenville also flooded the King Edward workings.  Underground operations, on a much reduced scale, were transferred to a dry shallow section the Great Condurrow Mine to the north.  The surface area of the mine was retained and used for teaching mining, ore dressing and surveying.  The remainder of the lecturing continued to be carried out at the main campus in Camborne.

In 1974 the pilot plant and most of the lecturing in mining, ore dressing, management, and surveying moved to the main School of Mines Building. The mill complex was no longer needed and it became a store.

In 1987 a volunteer group was formed with the objective to conserve the site as an educational resource for the future and to operate it in a manner that benefits the local community. Using rescued machinery the mill has been restored to working condition much as it would have been in the early years of the last century.

Wheal Uny

Wheal Uny

Wheal Uny

Wheal Uny









‘World Heritage’ status for this area was granted on 14th July 2006. This should help to provide the necessary funding to improve and interlink all the mineral tramway projects. The majority of the trail is off-road and suitable for walkers, horse riders and cyclists. There are even some parts accessible to wheelchair users.

How does an engine house work?

The principal function of an engine house was to provide the integral framework of the engine it contained and its basic design was essentially established by Newcomen for his Atmospheric Engine. The distinctive architecture of Cornish beam engine houses links their landscape context – both in the United Kingdom and overseas – with Cornwall and West Devon mining engineering. More beam engines were installed in Cornwall and West Devon than any other mining region of the world: a total of around 3,000 engine houses were built to house them.

The Engine House




























For more information:

Flat Al-Stanley Learns About Geology, Saudi Arabia

Where in the World in Saudi Arabia?

The Arabian Shield Geology

Ancient Landmass - Saudi Arabia









(for more photos of fossils and sandstone geology: )

The geology in Saudi Arabia is quite unique.  Many millions of years ago, the eastern half of the country was under water – what is now the Arabian Gulf (see picture above right).   Today, you can go anywhere in the desert from Riyadh to the east coast and find fossils everywhere.  The fossils range in size from tiny shark’s teeth to larger brain corals or entire coral reefs – all frozen in stone.  So we thought that we’d take Flat Stanley with us to see if he was as lucky at finding fossils as we had been…. he was … and he learned a lot about sandstone, fossils and geology that day!

Fossil beds as rich and abundant in Saudi Arabia.  There is no need to dig or even search very hard; artifacts of ancient animals litter the ground.  Entire hillsides and cliffs there are composed of fossils.  The Riyadh Escarpment is especially rich in pre-historic remains of sea life – this was the eastern edge of the ancient sea.  There are thousands of acres of the desert floor covered with fossils; these ancient coral beds must have been an astounding site!

Due to the abundance of sandstone (fossilized ancient beaches) and limestone (ancient coral reefs) there are many examples of dahls (dals) to explore.  In English these would be the equivalent of sink-holes or caves created by streams of water.

Along the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia, you can find sedimentary limestone rocks deposited in layers by the rising and falling of ancient seas.  On the western coast there is an ancient land mass, called the Arabian Shield, made up of igneous & metamorphic rocks. Occasionally you can find sedimentary rocks due to uplifting & erosion processes.

Sedimentary rock forms in water, where the weight of the water presses down on the layers of sand and clay to squash them together into a new rock. Sometimes animals and plants get stuck in between the layers, and then fossils in their shape get molded into the new stone.  Because some kinds of grains, like sand, are bigger and heavier than other kinds, like clay, they sink faster when they fall into the lake or the ocean. That’s how you get different kinds of sedimentary rocks. Some kinds are mostly made near shore, and they have mostly sand in them, like sandstone. Other kinds are mostly made farther from shore, and they have mostly clay in them, like shale. The particles that get furthest from shore are the ones that make limestone. All of these rocks still form today, just the same way they formed billions of years ago.

This flow of water, slightly acidic from acid rain or from passing through something acidic, is what digs out the caves (sinkholes or dahls in Arabic). It essentially widens cracks in the rock. And the ceiling may also collapse, making a mound of limestone on the floor, and a concave dome above.

Old Widow Hag

Shark's Tooth Fossil

Flat Stanley Finds a Fossil

Heading down a wadi looking for fossils

Flat Stanley and Fossilized Trees

Miles of fossils, Jebel Baloum

Flat Stanley Discovering Geology

Stalactite, Sawh, Saudi Arabia

Sandstone and Limestone Cliffs, Sawh, Saudi Arabia

Sea of Sand























Stalactites and stalagmites occur in limestone caves. The stalactite is above, and hangs downward like an icicle; the stalagmite is below and sticks up.  They grow in pairs, the slightly acidic water dissolves some of the limestone, carrying it downward.  When the water evaporates, the limestone appears to have flowed downward.   Some of the water does not evaporate until it has fallen through the air, and landed on the floor, the remaining limestone building the stalagmite.  Sometimes the stalactite is missing, as they sometimes break off and fall; you will often see their pieces on the floor.  Or human visitors may break them off, and take them away.  Often, the stalactite and stalagmite will connect, and become a column.

Approaching Al Khatla Dahl

Al Khatla Dahl

Fossilized Sea Shell, Tuwaiq Escarpment

More Coral Fossils

Coral Fossil

Flat Stanley Finds More Sand Balls

Flat Stanley and Sand Balls

Crystals in the Sand

Flat Stanley Finds a Fossil
















Moqui Marbles (sand balls) are sedimentary concretions. They form as sediments are laid down at the bottom of bodies of water. The moqui marbles have harder minerals than the normal sediment. The sediment layers then turn to sandstone. When the sandstone erodes away, the marbles are uncovered.  Seeing these in the middle of the desert is evidence of ancient rivers and lakes.

Entering Sadus Dahl

Inside a Dahl (Sinkhole)

Flat Stanley's First Dahl (Sinkhole)

Fossilized Brain Coral

Al Khufaisat Dahl

Al Khufaisat Dahl

Pools Carved in Sandstone

Fantastic Sandstone Cliffs

Flat Stanley and Coral Fossils in Limestone
















Lava tubes are created when lava flows as a river; the lava at the edges often solidifies into a hollow tube, or it may be open at the top. When the lava quits flowing, sometimes an empty tube is left, perhaps going on for miles.

Liquid rocks shoot up to the surface when volcanoes suddenly erupt. Then tons of liquid rock rockets out of the top of the volcano and lands on the surface. When the liquid rock cools down, it becomes igneous rock.  There are a lot of different kinds of igneous rock, depending on what kind of molecules are involved, and how fast the liquid rock cooled down. Some of the better-known kinds of igneous rock that comes from volcanoes are pumice, lava, and obsidian. When lava cools, it often turns into basalt.  Other igneous rocks formed slowly, deep in the earth. Some examples are quartz and granite. About a quarter of the rocks on earth are igneous rocks.

Flat Stanley’s Visit to the Lava Tubes and White Volcanoes:

For more reading on Saudi geology:

Fossilized Coral (Tuwaiq Escarpment)

Fan Coral Fossil

Coral Fossil, Tuwaiq Escarpment

Tuwaiq Escarpment: A huge ancient coral reef and modern sandstone cliff